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Lotura nagusiak orri hauetan: txinatarra / alemanera ingelesa / hungariarra / japoniera / suediarra

lotura i-mode orriarekin page


hiztegiak, itzulpenak


beste alfabetoak

idatzi ez alfabetikoak


beste lotura batzuk


arriskuan dauden hizkuntzak


zeinu bidezko hizkuntzak




abestiak eta musika


hildako hizkuntzak



filosofia linguistikoa


berezkoak ez diren hizkuntzak


AI, adierazpen askatasuna


kodeketa, steganografia


hizkuntzaren historia




psikologia kognitiboa


hizkuntzalaritza matematikoa


animalien harremana


hizkuntzen zerrenda


hizkuntzazkoak ez diren loturak

to links pages [1] [2] [3] [4]

other links : newspaper

Can you translate the next 300 words into Hindi, or Korean?; if so, please contact me and there will be rejoicing.

Ia astero hizkuntza bat desagertzen da gure munduan. Norbait arduratzen al da?

Gu bai; otherlanguages.org web orria mundu osoko gutxiengo eta estaturik gabeko 5.000 hizkuntzen erreferentzi izateko lanean ari gara. Milaka hizkuntza desagertzen ari dira. Mundu osoan 5.000 edo 6.000 hizkuntza daude bizirik une honetan, beraz oso zaila da zer galtzen ari garen jakitea, zein literatura, filosofia edo pentsaera desagertzen ari den une honetan.

Zer egin dezakegu?

Laister milaka hizkuntzen desagertzeaz damutuko gara, gaur animali eta landareen desagertzeaz damutzen garen bezala. Mundu osoa hizkuntza nagusi gutxi batzuen menpe dago; txinako mandarina, hindua, arabiarra, indonesiarra, urdua, gaztelera, portugesa, ingelesa, swahilia, errusiera, txinako kantonesa, japonesa, bengalia. Guztiak hizkuntza eder eta liluragarriak. Baina hauek bezain eder eta liluragarriak dira geratzen diren beste 5.000ak.

Hizkuntza minoritarioak, bizi diren estatuko hizkuntza ofiziala eta beraiek erabiltzen dutena berbera ez dutenek osatzen dituzte. Suediera hitzegiten duten Finlandiarrak, frantzesa hitzegiten duten Kanadiarrak, magiarra hitzegiten duten Eslobakiarrak eta milaka gehiagok, hizkuntza minoritarioak osatzen dituzte. Estatu gabeko hizkuntzak erabiltzen dituzten kultura batzuk, munduko herri ezezagun eta misteriotsuenak izaten dira. Adibidez, Suedia eta Finlandiako iparraldean bizi diren laponiarrak, Sardiniako sardiniera, Japoniako Ainuak, Estatu Batuetako txerokiak, eskoziarren gaelikoa Britinia Handian, euskaldunak Frantzia eta Espainian, friesiera Holandan, zuluak Hegoafrikan... Mundu osoan soilik 200 estatu ofizial onartzen dira, beraz 5.000 hizkuntzatik gora dira estatu gabeko hizkuntza edo herriak.

Nola lagundu dezakezu?

Ez da ezinbestezkoa desagertzeko arriskuan dagoen hizkuntza bat ikasi eta menperatzea; baso bat ez desagertzeko bertan lo egiteko erabakia hartzea bezalako sahiakera zentzugabea izango liteke. Hasteko modu ederra, lagunei web orrialde hau bezalakoak esistitzen direla esatea izan liteke...

(to contact Basque translators, e-mail ibanhoe@hotmail.com and martaurig@hotmail.com)

Broader public interest makes it easier for linguists to raise funds and organise people to learn these languages while there's time.

That's right. There are people who love languages and are happy to learn them on behalf of the rest of us, but they need support, just like zoologists, botanists, or historians.

Fewer languages still sounds good to me

Depends what you think languages are for. They're not just a tool for business. We never said you should learn three or four thousand rare languages - or even one. And which ones we make children learn in school, or whether we should force children to learn languages at all, is another question.

A century ago - before we understood ecology, and when we cared less about wilderness, most educated people would have laughed at the idea of worrying about plants or animals going extinct. Now we understand how important species diversity is for our own futures, we are more humble, and more worried.

In the same way, linguistic triumphalism by English-speakers who hated studying foreign grammar at school is dangerously ignorant as well as arrogant. Few of us know what we are losing, week by week. How many people realise these languages have scientific value?

Scientific value?

You can think of these languages across the planet as beautiful cathedrals or precious archeological sites we are watching being destroyed. That should be motive enough.

But these five thousand languages may also hold clues to the structure of the human mind. Subtle differences and similarities between languages are helping archeologists and anthropologists to understand what happened in the hundreds of centuries of human history before written history. And that is one of our best chances of understanding how human brains developed over the thousands of centuries leading up to that.

Study of the mind and study of language go hand in hand these days. The world's most marginal languages are actually precious jigsaw pieces from an overall picture of who we are and how our species thinks and evolves. Every tiny language adds another brightly-coloured clue to this academic detective story.

Yet researchers have hardly started sifting through this tantalising evidence, and language extinction is washing it away right in front of us.

And worst of all, most people have no idea that there is this fantastic profusion of cultures across our world, let alone that they are in danger of extinction. Even just more people learning that there are still five thousand living languages in the world today (most of us would answer five hundred or fifty) is already a huge help.

We English-speakers hardly notice English - it's like air for us. But every other language is also an atmosphere for an entire cultural world, and each of these worlds has people whose home it is. Each language encapsulates a unique way of talking and thinking about life. Just try some time in a foreign prison, being forced to cope in another language, and you'll realise how much your own language is your identity. That's true for everyone.

Minority languages are a human-rights issue?

One of the most basic.

Dozens of millions of people worldwide suffer persecution from national governments for speaking their mother tongue - in their own motherland.

Many 'ethnic' feuds puzzling to outsiders had as their basis an attempt to destroy a linguistic community. Would the Northern Ireland dispute be quite so bitter if we English had not so nearly stamped out the Irish Gaelic language, for example? Almost nowhere in the world does a language community as small as the few thousand Rheto-Romanic speakers - the fourth official language of Switzerland - get the protection of a national government. Next time you see some Swiss Francs, check both sides of the banknote.

But outside exceptional countries like Switzerland or the Netherlands, speakers of non-official languages have a much less protected experience.

Speakers of minority languages are often seen as a threat by both the governments and the other residents of the countries where they were born, grew up, and try to live ordinary lives.

They experience discrimination in the job and education markets of their homelands, often having no choice but to pursue education in the major language of the host state - a deliberate government policy usually aimed at gradually absorbing them into the majority culture of that country.

Most governments are privately gleeful each time another small separate culture within their borders is snuffed out by a dwindling population or a deliberately centralising education system.

The United Nations is no help. It is an association of a couple of hundred sovereign states based on exclusive control of territory, almost all of them anxious to smother any distinct group or tradition that in any way might blur or smudge the hard-won borders around those pieces of territory.

The usual approach by sovereign states is to deny their linguistic minorities even exist.


Mark Griffith, site administrator / contact@otherlanguages.org

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